Dr. Hava Gil-Henn – Invasion and metastasis: the elusive hallmark of cancer

Dr. Hava Gil-Henn

In their seminal review published nearly two decades ago, Hanahan and Weinberg introduced the “hallmarks of cancer” and typified essential biological abilities that are acquired by human cancer [1], including sustained proliferative signaling, resistance to apoptosis, evading growth suppressors, induction of angiogenesis, enabling replicative immortality, and invasion and metastasis. Eleven years later, in 2011, the authors added two more emerging hallmarks, reprogramming of energy metabolism and evading immune destruction [2]. In their updated review, genomic instability and tumor-promoting inflammation were also added as enabling characteristics of tumorigenesis. Since then, several authors attempted to define the complexities of cancer biology in different ways and challenged the criteria for inclusion of specific hallmarks [3].

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